Panfoli, Isabella,Daniela Calzia, Silvia Ravera, Alessandro Morelli.2010. “Inhibition of Hemorragic Snake Venom Components: Old and New Approaches”. Accessed April 12, 2013.



Snake venoms are mixtures of biologically active proteins, metal ions, peptides and organic compounds. There are over 600 species of venomous snakes which can be classified into several groups. Most of the world’s envenomation’s are due to crotalidae and viperidae venoms. Venoms which affect the cardio-vascular system are classified hemotoxic whereas those that affect the nervous system are classified as neurotoxic.

Hemotoxic venoms contain various enzymes, isoenzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that either activate or inhibit factors that affect hemostasis. Many of the toxins in the venom affect platelet function by inhibiting or inducing platelet aggregation. Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) isoenzymes are responsible for inflammation and can be found in large numbers in both hemotoxic and neurotoxic venoms. Hemorrhages are caused by enzymes degrading proteins and components of the hemostatic system. This can be lethal as the hemostatic system is responsible for stopping bleeding and wound healing, which is the opposite of hemorrhage.

The extract of protein from horses and sheep are used as antivenins as they neutralize the toxins in humans. The administration of these toxins may be risky. Neutralization of toxins using inhibitors in plant extract may be used. Inhibitors of PLA2’s form soluble complexes with PLA2 enzymes, inhibiting their effects. Electric currents can also be used as a neutralizer at low voltages against metalloproteases and PLA2. There are many approaches to inhibit hemorrhagic venom which present advantages as well as disadvantages.

Most people, if not aware of how, know that some snakes possess poisonous venoms which can be lethal. It is known that poison affects the body in a negative way, but I have never known how or why. From this paper I have learnt that venoms are composed of proteins which are responsible for attacks on specific system which, if not treated, will bring down the body from within. I also learnt that inhibitors play a positive role in preventing these damaging proteins and so are the major components in antivenins. This paper may be difficult for someone without a biochemistry, biology or chemistry background to follow. It is also too wordy.




Mattar ,Rejane , Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Flair Jose’ Carrilho.2012. “Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetics and clinical factors”. Accessed April 11, 2013.


Lactose is a disaccharide that makes up the majority of mammalian milk and is also a major source of nutrition for new-borns until they are weaned. It is broken down by the enzyme lactase, which most people are born with, into glucose and galactose. Lactase activity is high at young ages such as birth to around two years old, but begins to decrease rapidly with age in some people(hypolactasia) grouped as “lactase non-persistence”. Those who maintain high lactase activity into adulthood are grouped as “lactase persistence”.

The LCT gene controls lactase persistence and non-persistence. The LCT13910CT and LCT13910TT genes are both found to be associated with lactase persistence, showing that the allele is still dominant in a heterozygous form, allowing the breakdown of lactose. However when the dominant LCT13910T is not present this results in lactose non-persistence, “lactose intolerance”. This may differ in different countries.

Lactose persistence and non-persistence can be tested by checking the body’s glucose and galactose level when lactose is ingested. Galactose metabolism is inhibited with ethanol to determine the glucose rise. A breathe test based on the fermentation of undigested lactose can be used as well as genetic testing.

The by-products of undigested lactose in the intestines, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and short-chain fatty acids result in abdominal pains, flatulence and bloating. It also acidifies the colon which results in diarrhea. These symptoms may also be accompanied with others not related to the gut.

This paper was very in-depth about the topic. It is very easy to be lactose intolerant and not know it can be so complex. One may drink a glass or milk or some yogurt for breakfast and not fully understand why they have and urge to defecate (poop) or fluctuate. I would’ve never guessed that my body’s ability to ingest milk and tolerate it could be associated with my genetics. I would suggest this paper to anyone in need of answers to their milk-stomach related issues.